Red River Colony


Red River Colony
   Also known as the Red River Settlement; Selkirk Colony; Assiniboia, etc. Founded by the Earl of Selkirk (q.v.), in 1811. The first party of colonists from Scotland reached York Factory that year, under the leadership of Miles Macdonell, and arrived at the Red River in 1812. A second party was sent out in 1812, reaching Red River in 1813. In that same year a third party sailed from the Orkneys, reaching their destination in 1814; and in 1815 a still larger party, in charge of Robert Semple, sailed for Hudson Bay and reached Red River the same year. The colonists suffered great privations for the first few years, and were constantly harassed by the fur traders of the North West Company. This petty warfare culminated in the Seven Oaks affair, in which Governor Semple lost his life. After the union of the two fur Companies, in 1821, the colony entered upon a period of comparative peace and prosperity; and eventually became, in 1870, part of the province of Manitoba.
   Index: MS The settlers sail from Stornoway, in the Hebrides, 151; the voyage to Hudson Bay, 152; settlers land at York Factory, 153; and winter there, 154; set out for Red River, June 1, 1812, 155; the first winter on the Red River, 157; the encampment at Pembina, 158; return to the Forks, 158; buildings erected a mile north of Fort Gibraltar, 159; second party of colonists sail from Stornoway, 159; ship-fever breaks out, 159; reach Red River, 1813, 159; first attempts at agriculture, 160; opposition of North West Company, 161-164; winter again at Pembina, 161-162; third party of settlers arrive, 1814, 163; a number of colonists abandon the Red River and settle in Upper Canada, 163; the remainder are driven north by the half-breeds and settle at Jack River, 163; brought back by Colin Robertson, 165; Robert Semple brings out party of Highlanders, 164; beginnings of education and religion, 165-166; Miles Macdonell's proclamation, 169; retaliatory measures of North West Company, 172-176; again winter at Fort Daer (Pembina), 178; Fort Gibraltar captured and dismantled, 178-179; Seven Oaks affair, 180-181; surrender of Fort Douglas, 182; Selkirk comes to the rescue, 191; brings back the settlers, 191; surveys ordered, roads and bridges built, 192; Commissioner Coltman sent to Red River, 195; his investigation, 196; Coltman returns to Quebec, 196; his report, 196; trial of Charles Rimhart, 197; Hudson's Bay Company relieves Selkirk's heirs of the responsibility of maintaining the colony, 222; agricultural experiments, 222; Adam Thorn appointed recorder, 245; stirs up trouble, 246-247; local governor appointed, 247; arrival of Bishop Anderson, 1849, 270; Simpson's evidence on conditions in the colony, 273-278; population, 1870, 286. B Isbister's work on behalf of, 212; deputation from, in England, 212; George Brown's interest in, 212-213. Md Plague of grasshoppers in, in 1868, 155; had population of about ten thousand persons at Confederation, 157. See also Selkirk; Assiniboia.
   Bib.: Bryce, Romantic History of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hargrave, Red River; Ross, Red River Settlement; Bell, The Selkirk Settlement; MacBeth, The Selkirk Settlers in Real Life; Selkirk, Statement Respecting the Settlement upon the Red River; Narrative of Occurrences in the Indian Countries.

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